COVID-19 ; Know Your Enemy And Save Lives.. here is a full guide to doctors to deal with COVID-19 known as coronavrus .. made by IMHOTEP RESEARCH CLINIC.
The virus is transmitted in respiratory droplets and can be spread by coughing, sneezing, or touching infected surfaces. Coronaviruses have also been detected in blood, faeces, and urine.
The most commonly reported symptoms in laboratory-confirmed cases are:
Less common symptoms are diarrhea (4%) and vomiting (5%).
Anyone who has either had (a) a contact with someone with confirmed covid-19 infection or returned from a (b) high risk country in the 14 days before the onset of symptoms if they present with any of the major symptoms.
Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of atypical presentations in (c) vulnerable groups of patients.
Europe has now become the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, says the World Health Organization (WHO), 13 March 2020. Italy has the largest outbreak in Europe.
As of 2 March 2020, category 1 areas (highest risk) included Wuhan city and Hubei Province in China, Daegu or Cheongdo in Republic of Korea, Italian towns under containment measures, and Islamic Republic of Iran.
Category 2 (high risk) countries included China, Thailand, Japan, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Macau, Italy, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam.
Currently Available Information Indicates That Children Are As Likely To Be Infected As Adults; However They Experience Milder Clinical Manifestations.
Pregnant women appear to experience similar clinical manifestations as non-pregnant adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
There is no evidence of severe adverse outcomes in neonates due to maternal COVID-19 pneumonia, and the virus has not been found in breast-milk.
Evidence from epidemiological investigations suggests that, in China, COVID-19 poses a disproportionately high threat to those aged 70 or above. While these numbers call for older adults to protect themselves as much as possible, misinformation can undermine recommended protective behaviors prescribed by health agencies.
The relationship between age and misinformation has been extensively explored by psychologists generating nuanced and, at times, competing insights. However, a 2014 meta-analysis of ageing and the misinformation effect revealed that older adults, especially those over 65, are more vulnerable to misinformation as compared to other groups.
At first; ask screening questions to patients:
Assess whether they are clinically stable and not critically unwell. If the patient is critically unwell and requires urgent transfer to hospital, call 123 and inform the ambulance call handler of a suspected case of COVID-19.
Avoid a face-to-face assessment in primary care. Advise the patient to call 105 ; hotline of the Egyptian ministry of health.
Stop the consultation and leave the room, avoiding physical examination, direct physical contact, and exposure to respiratory secretions. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
Isolate the patient and reassure them that you are following precautionary guidelines and try to communicate with them through closed door to reassure them and provide updates.
Isolate individuals suspected to have COVID-19, their waste, and their belongings in a room with the door closed and window open (switch off any air conditioning). Ensure that they have a mobile phone or access to a telephone line and ask them to call 105 for advice.
Avoid entering the isolation room. If further clinical history needs to be obtained this should be done by phone
If the patient with suspected COVID-19 is accompanied by family members or friends, they should all be isolated if they are close contacts of the patient.
If entry to the isolation room or contact with the patient is unavoidable, wear protective clothing in line with the standard infection control precautions, such as gloves, apron, and a standard fluid resistant surgical mask, and keep exposure to a minimum. All protective clothing and equipment should be disposed of as clinical waste.
Once a possible case has been transferred from the primary care premises, the room where the patient was placed should not be used, the room door should remain shut, with windows opened and the air conditioning switched off, until it has been cleaned with detergent and disinfectant. Once this process has been completed, the room can be put back in use immediately.
Wiping the surfaces with either a combined detergent disinfectant solution at a dilution of 1000 parts per million available chlorine or a neutral purpose detergent followed by disinfection.
Indicated for people suspected to have COVID-19 who are undergoing testing and are not critically ill.
Self-isolation means staying indoors for 14 days from the date of contact with a confirmed case or return from high risk areas, avoiding contact with other people, and separating themselves from the rest of the household
Patients who are self-isolating are advised to:
As a general precaution, anyone visiting live animal markets, wet markets or animal product markets, should practice general hygiene measures.
Any contact with other animals possibly living in the market (e.g., stray cats and dogs, rodents, birds, bats) should be strictly avoided.
The consumption of raw or undercooked animal products should be avoided.
As a general recommendation, sick animals should never be slaughtered for consumption; dead animals should be safely buried or destroyed and contact with their body fluids should be avoided without protective clothes.
Follow these five steps every time.
You can use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
Washing hands with soap and water is the best way to get rid of germs in most situations.
1. Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., ... & Xing, X. (2020). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine.
2. Wu, Z., & McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Jama.
3. Liu, T., Hu, J., Kang, M., Lin, L., Zhong, H., Xiao, J., ... & Deng, A. (2020). Transmission dynamics of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).
4. Backer, J. A., Klinkenberg, D., & Wallinga, J. (2020). Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20–28 January 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(5).
5. Razai, M. S., Doerholt, K., Ladhani, S., & Oakeshott, P. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): a guide for UK GPs. BMJ, 368.
6. Wylie, L. E., Patihis, L., & McCuller, L. L. (2014). Misinformation effect in older versus younger adults: A meta-analysis and review. In The elderly eyewitness in court (pp. 52-80). Psychology Press.
7. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) Situation Report–29. 19 February 2020.
8. Public Health England. covid-19: epidemiology, virology and clinical features. 2020.https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-background-information/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-epidemiology-virology-and-clinical-features
9. World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s remarks at the media briefing on COVID-2019 outbreak on 17 February 2020. 2020 https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-2019-outbreak-on-17-february-2020.
10. Briefing NHS. Primary care providers and the coronavirus (covid-19). 2020. https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/coronavirus-primary-care-briefing.pdf
11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Coronavirus latest: WHO says Europe now epicentre of pandemic
12. van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D., Holbrook, M., Gamble, A., Williamson, B., ... & Lloyd-Smith, J. (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1. medRxiv.
13. Jacoby, L. L., & Rhodes, M. G. (2006). False remembering in the aged. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(2), 49-53.
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